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Academic Integrity: REFERENCING


The acknowledgement of any book, article, online material or any source used in writing an essay or assignment

Referencing styles are a set of rules showing how to reference in a particular way. Different styles have different formats!

Essential Elements of Referencing


Refers to sources you quote within your document. This brief citation directs the reader to the exact place in your reference list or bibliography where you will provide the extended details of the source

Reference list/ Bibliography:

Detailed list of sources that have been cited within the text. Every reference must have enough information for the reader to find the source again.


When citing a book/report title in an essay or assignment, you use italics 

The Code of Professional Conduct for Teachers was updated by the Teaching Council in 2016.

George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four was published in June 1949.


Use double inverted commas for quotations:

"Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to 'recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information." (American Library Association 1989)

If a quote is longer than three sentences, ident the quote in a seperate paragraph. You don't need to use inverted commas

Nowhere did this new boundary-free culture of American food consumption thrive better than in the traditional American family, which by the ’80s was undergoing rapid change. (Critser 2003)


The first time you either mention or cite an organisation you give the full title followed by the acronym. Any subsequent reference can be the acronym. 

Department of Education and Skills DES

National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA

You must always give the full organisation title in your Bibliography.